LED Lights


Understanding and comparing ‘LED’ performance appears straightforward: get the datasheets, compare numbers for light output, efficacy and lumen maintenance, and make a decision. LED optimizes energy consumption as compared to conventional lighting, reduces maintenance through improved durability and allows great savings to one’s electricity consumption. Unfortunately, any purchase and design decision bases simply on the top-line numbers – the specs on the early pages – without analysis of how the LEDs will perform under real operating conditions can lead to unsatisfactory results and significant business risks. SOP LED light contained in datasheets that can be used to show an LED will perform under real operating conditions.

SOP LED Module Series is designed to be energy efficient and highly versatile. It has various applications to cater to different needs with easy installation methods. The LED light source is made to be shock resistant with polycarbonate diffuser and comes with different guards available to suit various applications. SOP LED Floodlights are fabricated to provide unparalleled light quality and saves up to 90% energy compared to halogen floodlight. Customized heat sink made from high thermal conductive aluminium material provides superior thermal management, optimizing the LED performances and ensuring long service life under extreme operating temperatures. The professional LED floodlight in its class. The slim and sleek design of SOP Panel Light is the best solution for all indoor usage. The simple to install panel light is ideal to be an alternative to the T8/T5 ceiling fixture, its high-energy efficiency lowers maintenance cost. More importantly, it creates a beautiful environment and enhances the surrounding with a sense of natural light.

Guide on Selection of LED Modular Floodlights @ 200 Lux

SOP LED Downlight Series takes conventional lightings to a whole new dimension. The designing concept revolves around energy-efficiency and durability with true colour quality. The robust construction and stylish finishing makes it suitable for a wide range of applications.

SOP LED High Bay Series provides high efficacy, reduced input power compared to HID or fluorescent system, and the excellent lighting quality needed for task visibility, material characteristic and colour differentiation. With a remarkable energy savings high light output LEDs, SOP LED High Bay is an ideal tool for general lighting in warehouses and manufacturing facilities. Let us imagine that you are to design a LED lamp with the highest possible light output. The average must be capable of producing light output 50,000 hours of operation at a level that is at least 70% of output when the lamp was new.

Selecting the right LED lighting for your applications remains a challenge for many owners, facilities managers or buyers. Most of the consumers are used to the traditional fluorescent lamps, incandescent bulbs or even the high intensity discharge lamps, available in fixed wattage with similar luman output, similar lamp service life, standard lamp bases and similar conventional housing. SOP LED lights are Vibration resistant, Energy savings of up to 90% compared to incandescent bulb, Safety, EMC and IEC compliance.

LED definition of Lumens / Lux / Luminance

Lumens / lm  → Amount of light in all directions emitted by a light source
Unit: lm or Lumen

Lux / lx → Measurement of emerging light on surface
Unit: lx-Lux E(lx) = lumen output (lm) / surface (m²) = Lux (lx)
It decreases with the distance from the light source

Luminance → Is the measurement of the brightness impression the eye perceives from the illuminated area – Depends on the degree of reflection
Unit: cd/m²

Images from copyright © 2014 Autodesk, Inc

Efficacy lighting – lm/W → How much light does it put out based on how much energy it consumers?
Unit: lm/W or Lumen/ watts

Colour Temperature

Colour temperature expressed in Kelvin, symbol K, a unit use for measure temperature based on Kelvin scale
Lower colour temperature are called warm colours (yellowish white through red)
Higher colour temperature over 5000K are called cool colours (bluish white)



Luminaire Performance

Yield → The ratio of luminous flux (lumens) emitted by a luminaire to that emitted by the lamp used.
CRI / Color Rendering Index → A quantitative measure of the ability of a light source to reveal the colours of various objects faithfully in comparison with an ideal or natual light source.
Power factor → An AC electrical power system is defined as the ratio of the real power flowing to the load to the apparent power in the circuit

Advantages of LED lights over other types



Area Classification

A hazardous area is defined as ‘An area in which an explosive gas atmosphere is present, or may be expected to be present, in quantities such as to require special precautions for the construction, installation and use of equipment.’

Hazardous areas are divided into three Zones which represent the risk in terms of the probability, frequency and duration of a release. Area classification assists in the proper selection and installation of equipment.

The three Zones, as defined in IEC60079-10-1 (Classification of hazardous area explosive gas atmospheres), are as follows:

Zone 0 – In this Zone, an explosive gas atmosphere is continuously present, or present for long periods or frequently.

Zone 1 – In this Zone, an explosive gas atmosphere is likely to occur in normal operation occasionally.

Zone 2 – In this Zone, an explosive gas atmosphere is not likely to occur in normal operation but if it does occur, will persist for a short period only.




Equipment Group

In the IEC system, electrical equipment for explosive atmospheres is divided into groups. The group allocation for surface and mining industries are separate.

Group I is reserved for the mining industry (hazards are ‘firedamp’ & coal dust).

Group II is for surface industries with gas hazards, and is subdivided into IIA (propane), IIB (ethylene) and IIC (hydrogen).

Group III is for surface industries with dust hazards, subdivided into IIIA (flying’s), IIIB (non-conductive dusts) and IIIC (Conductive dusts).



EXplosive ATmosphere (ATEX) Certified equipment is for Group II.

The equipment group or sub-division will be marked on the equipment nameplate:

  • Equipment marked just II may be used in all hazards.
  • Equipment marked IIA can only be used in IIA hazards.
  • Equipment marked IIB can be used in IIB and IIA hazards.
  • Equipment marked IIC can be used in all hazards.
  • Equipment marked II (XXX) is only for use in XXX (chemical formula / hazard name).

Temperature Classification: T Class

Equipment was classified of into one of six temperature classes, from 85°C up to 450°C.

Electrical equipment must be selected to ensure that the surface temperature produced by the equipment (indicated by the ‘T’ Class) will not exceed the ignition temperature of the flammable atmosphere which may be present around the equipment. Equipment temperature class marking (‘T’ Class) and its equivalent °C.

Temperature Class Maximum Surface Temperature
T1 450°C
T2 300°C
T3 200°C
T4 135°C
T5 100°C
T6 85°C


Temperature classification is based on the maximum temperature which any relevant part of the equipment, which may be in contact with an explosive gas can reach, when operated within its normal designed rating and maximum ambient.

Ambient temperature range for Ex equipment is -20°C to +40°C, unless otherwise marked on the equipment.

T-class temperature are based on the maximum ambient for the equipment, and this is the temperature rise calculations.

The equipment ambient rating must be compatible with the actual environment ambient temperature

Equipment for use in hot climates, such as the Middle Eastern countries, will usually require ambient ratings greater than 40°C. Equipment for use in colder (arctic) climates will require a much lower limit to the ambient temperature range, which may be as low as -50°C. Such equipment would special material and expensive testing for certification. Equipment group & T-class are not directly related.

In the table, for each material, the equipment T class is seen to be below the ignition temperature of the flammable material.

Material Group Ignition Temperature °C Required T-Class °C
 Hydrogen  IIC  560 T1(450)
 Acetylene  IIC  305 T2(300)
 Carbon Disulphide  IIC  90 T6(85)
 Ethylene  IIB  440 T2(300)
 Hydrogen Sulphide  IIB  260 T3(200)
 Diethyl Ether  IIB  175 T4(135)
 Propane  IIA  450 T2(300)
 Cyclohexane  IIA  244 T3(200)
 Benzaldehyde  IIA  192 T4(135)
 Methane (firedamp)  I  595 T1(450)

Certifications and Markings


IEC 60533:2015(E) specifies minimum requirements for emission, immunity and performance criteria regarding electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) of electrical and electronic equipment for ships with metallic hull. This International Standard assists in meeting the relevant EMC requirements as stated in SOLAS 74, Chapter IV, Regulation 6 and Cha pter V, Regulation 17. Reference to this International Standard is made in IMO Resolution A.813(19). This edition includes the followi ng significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
– Introduction has been supplemented;
– scope and title have been modified to limit the application of the standard to installations in ships with metallic hulls only;
– the normative references have been updated;
– further explanation for in-situ testing has been given in 5.1;
– numbering of CISPR-Standards in Tables 1, 2 and 3 has been updated;
– title of Annex B has been changed;
– requirements on cable routing in Annex B have been amended;
– new Annex C EMC test report has been added.


The American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) is an American maritime classification society established in 1862. Its stated mission to promote the security of life, property and the natural environment, primarily through the development and verification of standards for the design, construction and operational maintenance of marine and offshore assets.

ABS’ core business is to provide global classification services to the marine, offshore and gas industries. As of 2020, ABS was the second largest class society with a classed fleet of over 12,000 commercial vessels and offshore facilities. ABS develops its standards and technical specifications, known collectively as the ABS Rules & Guides. These Rules form the basis for assessing the design and construction of new vessels and the integrity of existing vessels and marine structures.


DNV GL was created in 2013 as a result of a merger between two leading organizations in the field — Det Norske Veritas (Norway) and Germanischer Lloyd (Germany). In 2021, DNV GL changed its name to DNV, while retaining its post-merger structure. DNV is the world’s largest classification society, providing services for 13,175 vessels and mobile offshore units (MOUs) amounting to 265.4 million gross tonnes, which represents a global market share of 21%. It is also the largest technical consultancy and supervisory to the global renewable energy (particularly wind, wave, tidal and solar) and oil and gas industry — 65% of the world’s offshore pipelines are designed and installed to DNV’s technical standards.

Ingress Protection (IP Code) – to IEC60529


Enclosures of electrical equipment are classified according to their ability to resist the ingress of solid objects and water by means of system of numbers known as the ‘Ingress Protection’ Code. This consists of the letters IP + two numbers, e.g. IP56.

The first number, in the range 0-6, indicates the degree of protection against solid objects, and the higher the number the smaller the solid object that is prevented from entering the enclosure. Zero (0) indicates no protection, and 6 indicates the equipment is dust-tight.

The second number, range 0-8, identifies the level of protection against water entering the enclosure, from 0- ‘no protection’ to 8- ‘withstands indefinite immersion a specified at depth.

Mechanical strength

Impact tests

As well as having the degree of ingress protection called for in the various construction standards, enclosures for electrical equipment must pass an impact test.

In this test, a test weight of 1 kg with an impact head of hardened steel, in the form of a 25mm hemisphere, is dropped onto the completely assembled equipment from a height ‘h’. At the end of the test, there must not be enough damage to invalidate the type of protection, IP code etc.

The height ‘h’ in meters, is given in the standards and varies with the equipment Group and the risk of mechanical impact (high or low). The standard details the two levels of impact resistance appropriate to high and low risk of impact. If the equipment is only suitable for low impact, the certificate is suffixed ‘X’ to signify special conditions of use apply.

Drop tests

In addition to the impact test, portable (hand-held) electrical or electronic equipment must be subjected to a drop test, in which it is dropped at least four times onto a horizontal concrete surface from a height of one meter.

Again the acceptance criterion is that there is not enough damage to invalidate the type of protection, IP code etc.